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Journal Measures and Citation Analysis Tools: Citation Analysis

Subscription Database Citation Sources

A number of databases offer "cited author" searching which yields the number of citations for a particular author and article.  For more information see this handy comparison chart from the University of Michigan and detailed guide from Boston College

-Ebsco -- various databases including,

Academic Search Complete

America: History and Life

Historical Abstracts


Note: For Ebsco databases choose the 'cited references' tab at the top of the page.

Scopus  Covers primarily science, technology, medicine, social sciences, and some arts and humanities. After an author search, you have the option of various analyses of the authors output, as well as citation to the authors work.

-JSTOR -- Either the 'citation locator' or 'advanced search' in JSTOR allows for citation searching. When you locate your article you can choose to view  citing items in the JSTOR database or citing items in Google Scholar. Additionally, after registering, you can 'track citations' and receive an email when your article is cited by an article in the JSTOR database.

Google Scholar Citations and Google Books

Google Scholar indexes a range of peer-reviewed papers, theses, books, preprints, abstracts and technical reports from across disciplines. If an article has been cited, a 'cited by' link will appear under its title.

Google Scholar Citations --  "Provides a simple way for authors to keep track of citations to their articles. You can check who is citing your publications, graph citations over time, and compute several citation metrics."

Citations Gadget -- A Google Scholar Universal Gadget which enables users to search for the total number of citations of author(s). It provides a total citation count, total number of cited publications and Jorge E. Hirsch's H-Index.

"Mapping the landscape of science is about to get easier than ever before. Google and Microsoft are rolling out free tools that will enable researchers to analyse citation statistics, visualize research networks and track the hottest research fields... The systems could be attractive for scientists and institutions that are unable — or unwilling — to pay for existing metrics platforms, such as Thomson Reuters' Web of Knowledge and Elsevier's Scopus database... Google Scholar also has an advantage over commercial providers in its extensive coverage of books — a significant research output in the social sciences and humanities — as well as conference proceedings, which are important outputs in the computing and engineering fields. ("Computing giants launch free science metricsNature, 2 August 2011, doi:10.1038/476018a

Google Scholar's "two major competitors in this arena are Thomson Reuters with their ResearcherID and Elsevier’s Scopus which has their Scopus ID." However compared to Google Scholar, these have a "rather limited resource set. ("How Google Scholar Citations passes the competition left and right iScientometrics. Nov 21, 2011.

  (Unless otherwise noted all information is from the product's web site.)

Publish or Perish

Harzing Publish or Perish (PoP) Free software download based on Google Scholar data.

One advantage to this service is its ability to evaluate beyond the sciences and social sciences. PoP works best in these disciplines:

  1. Business, Administration, Finance & Economics;
  2. Engineering, Computer Science & Mathematics;
  3. Social Sciences, Arts & Humanities.

It uses Google Scholar to obtain the raw citations, then analyzes these and presents the following statistics:

  • Total number of papers
  • Total number of citations
  • Average number of citations per paper
  • Average number of citations per author
  • Average number of papers per author
  • Average number of citations per year
  • Hirsch's h-index and related parameters
  • Egghe's g-index
  • The contemporary h-index
  • The age-weighted citation rate
  • Two variations of individual h-indices
  • An analysis of the number of authors per paper.

  (Unless otherwise noted all information is from the product's web site.)

h-index used in Publish or Perish and other resources

h-index -  The h-index does not have a website or database. It is simply a formula developed by  Jorge E. Hirsch, a physicist at UCSD, originally as a measure for determining theoretical physicists' comparitive quality.  It is included in Publish or Perish (from Google Scholar data).  A number of articles on journal ranking cite this formula as more appropriate for evaluating individuals than journal impact factors.

From h-index,


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