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Chicago-Style Citations: Social & Online Media, Data, Music, and Other Non-Print Materials, 17th ed.: AV &

About Citing Audio-Visual or Media Recordings

Citations for multimedia recordings should include:

  • The name of the person primarily responsible for the content (for example: director, writer, producer, or performer). Include designations such as, director, performer, as appropriate.
  • The title, in italics or quotation marks, as applicable
  • Information about the work, additional contributors and date and location of recording or production
  • Information about the recording company or publisher, including date of publication
  • Any identifying number of the recording
  • Medium (for example: DVD, videocassette, audio-visual file format)
  • The copyright date (c) or date of production (p)
  • Supplementary information about the number of discs and duration of the recording, as applicable, may also be included.

         For more information, see CMOS 17, 14.261.

Video recordings found online should include a URL or DOI (CMOS 17, 14.6-18).

DVDs, Video Cassettes, and Other Video Recording Formats

Full video recording

Note 17. Thomas Friedman, dir., Dr. Martin Luther King: A Historical Perspective, produced by Melissa Wegman (Santa Monica, CA: Xenon Pictures, 2002), DVD, 61 min.
Friedman, Thomas, dir. Dr. Martin Luther King: A Historical Perspective. Produced by Melissa Wegman. Santa Monica, CA: Xenon Pictures, 2002. XE XX 151. DVD, 61 min.


Indexed scene, chapter or part

Note 4. "The Target," The Wire Complete Series: Season 1, episode 1, directed by Clark Johnson, written by David Simon (New York: HBO Video, 2008), DVD.
 "The Target," The Wire Complete Series: Season 1, episode 1. Directed by Clark Johnson. Written by David Simon. New York: HBO Video, 2008. 4000016795. DVD

Ancillary or accompanying information

If citing information that accompanies a video recording or ancillary information, such as director commentaries, include the "author" of the material and the title (CMOS 17, 14.279).

Note 5. Howard Hampton, "The Whole World is Watching,"  A Hard Day's Night, produced by Walter Shenson, directed by Richard Lester,  (New York: The Criterion Collection, 2014), DVD.
Hampton, Howard. "The Whole World is Watching,"  A Hard Day's Night. Produced by Walter Shenson. Directed by Richard Lester. New York: The Criterion Collection, 2014. DVD

Online Multimedia (including streaming video)

CMOS 17, 14.265 and  CM0S 17, 14.267-268 addresses online video and film recordings. Some important information addressed in this section includes:

  • Citing the original source, if a digital version of the source is found  (also see
  • Indicating the source type of the original (i.e., 35 mm film) and the format found (i.e., DVD, MPEG, YouTube video)
  • Including duration or length
  • If no date can be determined from the source, include the date the material was accessed.

Streaming video service or website

Note 2. Edwin S. Porter, The Great Train Robbery (Thomas A. Edison, 1903), 35 mm film,  YouTube video, 11:51, posted by "ella,"December 13, 2011,
Porter, Edwin S. The Great Train Robbery (Thomas A. Edison, 1903), 35 mm film.  YouTube video, 11:51. Posted by "ella," December 13, 2011.

Streaming video library database

Some streaming databases, such as Films on Demand,  may provide links for citing materials found in the database.  The citation information presented in the database may be incorrect or not as prescribed in CMOS 17.  It is strongly suggested that you consult this guide and CMOS 17 for the correct form of citations.

A caution: the videos in the library databases may be broken in segments. When citing the film, you should include the information from the full video in your citation. For more information about indexed segments, see this page under "DVD's....." and CMOS 17, 14.279.


7. Two Dollars and A Dream, directed by Stanley Nelson, produced by Stanley Nelson ([New York?]: Filmakers Library, 1989),


Two Dollars and A Dream. Directed by Stanley Nelson. Produced by Stanley Nelson. [New York?]: Filmakers Library, 1989. .



8. Ernest & Celestine, directed by Stéphane Aubier, Vincent Patar (New York: GKIDS Films, 2012), 


Ernest & Celestine. Directed by Stéphane Aubier, Vincent Patar. New York: GKIDS Films, 2012 .