Selected sources of nationwide statistics for geographical areas smaller than State, including County, Census Tract, Block Group, Block, County Subdivision (towns in New England), Place (city, etc.), metropolitan areas, School District, ZIP Code, etc.
Finding Data for My Community, Census Bureau
Standard Hierarchy of Census Geographic Entities, Census Bureau
Creating a Health Profile of Your Neighborhood: A How-To Guide, Department of Health & Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Guide to State and Local Workforce Data, Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration, Office of Workforce Investment, 2010
data.census.gov, Census Bureau
"The Census Bureau is the leading source of quality data about the nation's people and economy." Examples of datasets providing data for small areas:
Click on a geographical area on the Census Bureau's Standard Hierarchy of Census Geographic Entities to see what data are available for that geography.
Census Explorer, Census Bureau
State, metropolitan area, County, and Census Tract, depending on the dataset.
ICPSR (Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research) maintains a data archive of more than 500,000 files of research in the social and behavioral sciences. It hosts 16 specialized collections of data in education, aging, criminal justice, substance abuse, terrorism, and other fields. Commonly used datasets include General Social Survey, American National Election Study, National Election Study, U.S. Census, etc.
Access to current and historical census data and demographic information. Including more than 18,000 interactive maps from 1790 to 2010. US Census 1790-2010. American Community Survey 2005-2015. "Specialized U.S. data resources include the FBI Uniform Crime Report (2010 to 2015), American election results (1912 to 2016), Religious Congregations and Membership Study (1980 and 2010), Vulcan Project carbon emissions data (2002), US Business Patterns (2014), and County Health Rankings and Roadmaps Program data (2010 to 2016). International data resources include the United Kingdom Census (2011), Canadian Census (2011), Eurostat (1990, 2000, 2010 to 2013), World Development Indicators (2013), and Irish religion and population data (1911 and 2001)." Some data are available down to the Block Group or Block levels. Dates of Coverage: 1790-Present.
Statistical Abstract of the United States
An authoritative and comprehensive summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States. Statistics for small-area geographics are limited and include only the larger small areas. Even if the data that you want are not there, look at the footnotes or source notes for relevant tables for pointers to more comprehensive sources, often having more detailed or comprehensive statistics.
State and Metropolitan Area Data Book
"A convenient summary of statistics on the social and economic structure of the states, metropolitan areas, and micropolitan areas in the United States".
| 1979 | 1982 | 1986 | 1991 | 1997-98 | 2006 | 2010 |
Look for other copies of those editions at Internet Archive or HathiTrust.
County and City Data Book
"A convenient summary of statistics on the social and economic structure of the counties and cities of the United States".
| 1944 (city only) | 1947 (county only) | 1949 | 1952 | 1956 | 1962 | 1967 | 1972 | 1977 | 1983 | 1988 | 1994 | 2000 | 2007 |
Look for other copies of those editions at Internet Archive or HathiTrust.
"The database for USA Counties features over 6,000 items. [...] Files contain a collection of data from the U.S. Census Bureau and other federal agencies, such as the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Internal Revenue Service, and the Social Security Administration."
Market Data Handbook of the United States, 1929, C 18.28:30
General Consumer Market Statistics, 1932, C 18.28:56. States, counties.
Consumer Market Data Handbook, 1936, C 18.41:15. States, counties, cities.
Consumer Market Data Handbook, 1939, C 18.28:102. States, counties, cities.
Industrial Market Data Handbook of the United States, 1939, C 18.28:107. States, counties.
County basic data sheet, 1945. States, counties.
Atlas of Rural and Small-Town America, Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service
"View the diversity of challenges and opportunities across America's Counties. View indicators about people, jobs, veterans, and county types. The Atlas has been updated to include 2016 county population estimates and annual unemployment/employment data." "The Atlas of Rural and Small-Town America assembles statistics on three broad categories of socioeconomic factors:
data.census.gov, Census Bureau
Qualified Census Tracts and Difficult Development Areas,
"Low-Income Housing Tax Credit Qualified Census Tracts must have 50 percent of households with incomes below 60 percent of the Area Median Gross Income (AMGI) or have a poverty rate of 25 percent or more. Difficult Development Areas (DDA) are designated by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and are based on Fair Market Rents, income limits, the 2010 census counts, and 2006–10 5-year American Community Survey data when they become available."
Small Area Health Insurance Estimates (SAHIE), Census Bureau
"The only source of data for single-year estimates of health insurance coverage status for all Counties in the U.S. by selected economic and demographic characteristics."
500 Cities: Local Data for Better Health, Department of Health & Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
"City- and Census Tract-level small area estimates for chronic disease risk factors, health outcomes, and clinical preventive service use for the largest 500 cities in the United States."
CDC WONDER, Department of Health & Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Some of the databases provide data at the level of Metropolitan Area or County.
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Department of Health & Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
"The nation's premier system of health-related telephone surveys that collect state data about U.S. residents regarding their health-related risk behaviors, chronic health conditions, and use of preventive services." "Find City and County data collected through the Selected Metropolitan/Micropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project, the Web Enabled Analysis Tool (WEAT), interactive maps, and other resources provided through BRFSS."
County Health Rankings and Roadmaps, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
"The annual County Health Rankings measure vital health factors, including high school graduation rates, obesity, smoking, unemployment, access to healthy foods, the quality of air and water, income inequality, and teen births in nearly every County in America. "
National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
"The National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (Tracking Network) [...] has data and information on environments and hazards, health effects, and population health." Data by State, County.
Food Environment Atlas, Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service
The Atlas assembles statistics on three broad categories of food environment factors:
The Atlas currently includes over 275 indicators of the food environment. The year and geographic level of the indicators vary to better accommodate data from a variety of sources. Indicators are at the County, Regional, and/or State level. The most recent county-level data are used whenever possible.
Food Access Research Atlas (formerly the Food Desert Locator), Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service
"Presents a spatial overview of food access indicators for low-income and other census tracts using different measures of supermarket accessibility; provides food access data for populations within Census Tracts; and offers Census-Tract-level data on food access that can be downloaded for community planning or research purposes."
U.S. Population Migration Data, 1991-2016, Internal Revenue Service
"Migration data for the United States are based on year-to-year address changes reported on individual income tax returns filed with the IRS. They present migration patterns by State or by County for the entire United States and are available for inflows-the number of new residents who moved to a State or county and where they migrated from, and outflows-the number of residents leaving a State or county and where they went."
CQ Voting and Elections Collection
A database of elections data, authoritative analyses, concise explanations, and historical materials to help researchers investigate and understand voting and elections in America from 1789-present. Small-area geographies include County and Congressional District.
Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) Census Block Groups (2000), NOAA Office for Coastal Management
"The Social Vulnerability Index (SOVI) measures the social vulnerability of U.S. counties to environmental hazards. The index is a comparative metric that helps users examine differences in social vulnerability among counties. SOVI graphically illustrates the geographic variation in social vulnerability. It is a valuable tool for policy makers and practitioners because it shows differences in capacity for preparedness and response, as well as areas where resources might be used most effectively to reduce vulnerability. SOVI is also useful as an indicator in determining the level of recovery from disasters. Through a partnership with the University of South Carolina (USC) and funding via South Carolina Sea Grant and the NOAA Office for Coastal Management, the SOVI method has now been applied to Census 2000 Block Groups for all coastal states, providing a more detailed look at a community's social vulnerability."
FFIEC Census and Demographic Data (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council)
"To support the collection, reporting, and analysis of HMDA and CRA data, the FFIEC publishes certain census, income, and Metropolitan Area data for geographies. The FFIEC geography-based data are updated as required by changes in area delineations by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). Because these data are updated periodically by the FFIEC, the FFIEC data may differ from data obtained directly from the Census Bureau. These data are intended to be used with HMDA and CRA data only and may not be suitable for other analytical purposes." Data available for: Metropolitan and Non-Metropolitan Area, County, Census Tract.